Cynthia (Cindy) Marie Ross Friedman, PhD, FRSA
Professor (Full)
Department of Biological Sciences
Thompson Rivers University (TRU)


Cynthia Ross Friedman
Department of Biological Sciences
Thompson Rivers University (TRU)
900 McGill Road
Kamloops, BC
V2C 0C8

Office: S348 (Science)

phone: (250) 828-5424
fax: (250) 828-5450 (attn. C. Ross Friedman)



My research is in the area of plant anatomy, particularly seed development, although I also have expertise and have published in the fields of forest and urban ecology, microscopy, mathematical biology, and physics (kinematics and electromagnetism).  I primarily study the reproductive development of the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum, a parasitic flowering plant belonging to the Santalaceae, the same family as the Christmas Mistletoe.  All mistletoes are parasites, and in the interior of  B.C., A. americanum parasitizes lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia).   Mistletoes derive all of their water and mineral nutrients from their host.  Dwarf mistletoes, however, also obtain some sugars from their host. Being a pathogen, A. americanum inflicts disease on the host pines, stunting the trees and increasing mortality.  Using the techniques of light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy, my students and I have elucidated stages of female development in A. americanum.  


46.  Zhou Y, Jiang J, Peng Z, Li J, Ross Friedman C, Wang H. (to be submitted January 2017). Abundance, diversity and composition of soil bacterial communities in rubber plantations based on high-throughput sequencing.

45.  Zhu Z-X, Zhang Y, Ross Friedman C, Wang H ,Yang X-B. (to be submitted January 2017). Plant taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity are resilient in tropical forests despite the accelerated rate of forest dynamics.

44. Zhu Z-X, Wang H-F,  Cai G-Y, Lin Q-W, Qureshi S, Qiu J-X, Ross Friedman C. (Submitted 2016). Systematic environmental impact assessment for non-natural reserve areas: A case study of the Chaishitan water conservancy project on land use and plant diversity in Yunnan, China. Frontiers in Plant Sciences.

43. Zhu Z-X,  Zheng T,  Ross Friedman C, Wang H. (Submitted 2016). Tropical island endemic plant species and their conservation: Hainan case study in China. Plant Ecology

42. Zhou Y, Jiang J, Peng Z, Wang C, Li J, Ross Friedman C., Wang H. (Accepted 2016). Functional diversity of soil microbial communities in different-age rubber plantations- a case study of Hainan Province, China. Journal of Rubber Research.

41. Ziegler DJ, Ross Friedman C. (2016).  Vegetative and floral development in the pistillate plant of Arceuthobium americanum (lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe): an environmental scanning electron microscopy study of phenology and shoot organization.  Botany.  doi:10.1139/cjb-2016-0253. 

Ziegler DJ, Ross Friedman C. (2016). Morphology and stomatal density of developing Arceuthobium americanum (lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe) fruit: a qualitative and quantitative analysis using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Botany. doi:10.1139/cjb-2016-0187.

39.  Hampel LD, Cheeptham C, Flood NJ, Ross Friedman, C. (2016).  Plants, fungi, and freeloaders: examining temporal changes in the “taxonomic richness” of endophytic fungi in the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum over its growing season.  Botany.  doi:10.1139/cjb-2016-0240. 

38. Mason C, Randhawa A, Watson K, Ross Friedman C, Cheeptham N (2016).  Using scanning electron microscopy to study microbial communities in speleothem samples collected from Iron Curtain Cave. Journal of Experimental Microbiology & Immunology 2, 1-7. 

37.  Wang H, Qureshi S, Qureshi B, Qiu J, Ross Friedman C Breuste J, Xiaoke W (2016).    A multivariate analysis integrating ecological, socioeconomic and physical characteristics to investigate urban forest cover and plant diversity in Beijing, China Ecological Indicators. 60: 921–929.

36. Wang H-F,  Qureshi S, Knapp S., Ross Friedman C; Hubacek, K  (2015).  A basic assessment of residential plant diversity and its ecosystem services and disservices in Beijing, China.  Journal of Applied Geography 64:121–131

35. deBruyn RAJ, Paetkau M, Ross KA, Godfrey DV, and Ross Friedman, C (2015). Thermogenesis-triggered seed dispersal in  dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium americanumNature Communications 6, 6262 doi:10.1038/ncomms7262 (open access)

34.  Wang, H-F, Ren, M-X, López-Pujol, J., Ross Friedman, C. Fraser, L.H., and Huang, G-X. (2015).  Plant species and communities in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China.  Collectanea Botanica. 34(1): e004 doi:

33.  Hartling I, Cinel B, Donkor K, Paetkau M, Ross Friedman C, and Church J. (2014).  Tenderness effects of suckler beef production in British Columbia.  Canadian Journal of Animal Science 94(2): 295-298  DOI 10.4141/cjas2013-126

32. Munro, K., Jackson JRM, Hartling I, Sumner, MJ, and Ross Friedman, C (2014). Anther and pollen development in the lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) staminate flower.  Botany 92: 203–214.  DOI:

31.  Wang H-F, Qiu J-X, Breuste J, Ross Friedman, C,  Zhou, WQ, Wang XK (2013).  Variations of urban greenness across urban structural units in Beijing, China.  Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 12: 554-561.  DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2013.05.004

30.  Mosti S, Ross Friedman C, Pacini E, Brighigna L., and Papini A. (2013).  Comparing nectary ultrastructure and secretory modes in three species of Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae) that have different pollinators.  Botany 91(11): 786-798, 10.1139/cjb-2013-0126

29.  Friedman, B.M.C., Abraham, M.G., Paetkau, M., Taylor, S.R., and Ross Friedman, C.  (2013).  Use of a varying turn-density coil (VTDC) to generate a constant gradient magnetic field and to demonstrate the magnetic force on a permanent magnet.   The Canadian Journal of Physics. 91(3): 226-230. 10.1139/cjp-2012-0405

28.  Ross Friedman, C.M., Ross, B. N., and Martens, G.D.  (2013).  An antibody against a conserved C-terminal consensus motif from plant alternative oxidase (AOX) isoforms 1 and 2 labels plastids in the explosive dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum, Santalaceae) fruit exocarpProtoplasma. 250(1): 317-323.   DOI: 10.1007/s00709-012-0414-6  

27.  Wang, H-F., Lencinas M.V., Ross Friedman, C.M., Zhu, Z.-X.,  and Qiu, J.-X. (2012).  Understory plant diversity assessment of Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations in Yunnan, ChinaCollectanea Botanica31: 51-65.

26.  Martin, L.L., Ross Friedman, C.M., and Phillips, L.A. (2012).  Fungal endophytes of the obligate parasitic dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum (Santalaceae) act antagonistically in vitro against the native fungal pathogen Cladosporium (Davidiellaceae) of their host.  American Journal of Botany.  99(12): 2027-34. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1200189.. 

25.  Mostia S., Ross Friedman C., Piccolina F, Di Falcoa P. and Papinia, A. (2012).  The unusual tegumental tissues of the Lunaria annua (Brassicaceae) seed: a developmental study using light and electron microscopy.  Flora. 207: 828– 837.

24.  Wang, H-F., Wang, Z-S., Ross Friedman, C  and Lopez-Pujol, J. (2012).  Conservation of the Cathay silver fir, Cathaya argyrophylla: a Chinese evergreen "living fossil".  Invited book chapter (review). In: Evergreens: Types, Ecology and Conservation.  Eds. Adriano D. Bezerra and Tadeu S. Ferreira.  Nova Science Publishers, Inc. ISBN  978-1-61942-177-6.  

23.  Ross Friedman, C.M. and Wang, H.F.  (2012).  Quantifying Meiosis: Use of the Fractal dimension, Df, to Describe and Predict Prophase I Substages and Metaphase I.  Invited book chapter (original research).  In: Meiosis.  Ed. Andrew Swan.  In Tech Publishers.  ISBN 979-953-307-212-7   pp. 303-320.  

22.  Friedman, B.M.C., and Ross Friedman, C.M. (2011).  Terminal velocity of canola oil, hexane and gasoline drops rising in water due to buoyancyInternational Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research.  2(12):

21.  Martin, L.L., Ross Friedman, C.M., and Smith, R.G.  (2011).  Callus culture of Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Englem. and explant response to varying auxin and cytokinin concentrationsPlant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology. 21(1): 1-10.

20.  Dwarka, A., Ross Friedman, C.M., MacKay, M.E., and Nelson, D. (2011).  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification of a female-specific genetic marker in Arceuthobium americanum (lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.  Botany. 89: 369–377.  

19.  Wang, H-F., Lencinas M.V., Ross Friedman, C.M., Wang, X.-K., and Qiu, J.-X.  (2011).  The impact of Eucalyptus plantation on plant diversity following clearing of secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan, China.  New Forests.  42(1): 101-116, DOI 10.1007/s11056-010-9240-x

18.  Pernitsky, K.Y., Mason, Q.D., Cinel, B., and Ross Friedman, C.M.  (2011). Discovery and partial purification of an antibiotic from lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) active against Gram-positive organisms including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Journal of Medicinal Plants Research.  5(9): 1722-1727.

17.  Azad, M.A., Huttunen-Hennelly, H.E.K., Ross Friedman, C.M.  (2011)  Bioactivity and the first TEM immunogold studies of short de novo designed antimicrobial peptides  Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.  55(5): 2137-2145, DOI:10.1128/AAC.01148-10

16.  Koziura, K.J., Ross Friedman, C.M., and Smith, R.G.  (2010).  Effects of methanolic and hexanes-derived dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium) extracts on the viability of salmon cells in culture: do these extracts induce necrosis and/or apoptosis?  Plant Products Research. 14: 1-5.  

15.  Vaudry, C.J., Ross Friedman, C.M., and Cinel, B. (2010).  Biosurfactants in dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium).  Plant Products Research.  14: 6–13.

14.  Wang, H-F., Ross Friedman, C.M., Shi, J-C., and Zheng, Z-Y.  (2010).  Anatomy of leaf abscission in the Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii, Caprifoliaceae): a scanning electron microscopy study.  Protoplasma 247(1-2): 111-116, DOI: 10.1007/s00709-010-0159-z

13.  Kelly, S.K.,  Ross Friedman, C.M., and Smith, R.G.  (2009).  Vesicular cells of the lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) fruit: development, cytochemistry, and lipid analysis. Botany  87: 1177-1185.  

12.  Ross Friedman, C.M., Ross, Bradford N., and Martens, Garnet D.  (2009).  Antibodies raised against tobacco aquaporins of the PIP2 class label the viscin tissue of the explosive dwarf mistletoe fruit.  Plant Biology 12: 229-233.  

11.  Wang, H-F., Ross Friedman, C.M., Zhang, Z-X., and Qin, H-N.  (2009).  Early reproductive developmental anatomy in Decaisnea (Lardizabalaceae) and its systematic implications.  Annals of Botany. 104(6):1243-1253; doi:10.1093/aob/mcp232

10. Fraser, L.H., Greenall, A., Carlyle, C., Turkington, R., and Ross Friedman, C.M.  (2009).  Adaptive phenotypic plasticity of Pseudoroegneria spicata: response of stomatal density, leaf area and biomass to changes in water supply and increased temperature.  Annals of Botany.  103: 769-775.

9. Ross Friedman, C.M. and Sumner, M.J.  (2009).  Maturation of the embryo, endosperm, and fruit of the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum (Viscaceae).  International Journal of Plant Sciences. 170(3): 290-300. 

8.  Littley, E., Ross Friedman, C.M. and Flood, N.  (2008).   Effect of Arceuthobium americanum (dwarf mistletoe) infection on lodgepole pine needles. Northwest Science 82(3): 237-240.

7.  Chhikara, A. and Ross Friedman, C.M. (2008).   The effects of male and female Arceuthobium americanum (lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe) infection on the relative positioning of vascular bundles, starch distribution, and starch content in Pinus contorta var. latifolia (lodgepole pine) needles.  Botany.  86(5): 339-543. 

6.  Stewart, C.D. and Ross, C.M. (2006).   Embryological and phenological comparison between the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum growing on lodgepole pine in BC and on jack pine in Manitoba.   Davidsonia 17(4): 107-115. 

5.  Ross, C.M. (2006).   Viscin cells in the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum – “green springs” with potential roles in explosive seed discharge and seed adhesion.    Davidsonia 17(3): 75-86.  

4.  Ross, C.M., and Sumner, M.J.  (2005).  Early embryo and endosperm development in the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum.  International Journal of Plant Sciences.  166(6): 901-907.

3.  Ross, C.M.  (2005).  A new way of thinking about meiosis: using the fractal dimension to predict the onset of metaphase I.  International Journal of Biological Sciences. 1:123-125.

2.  Ross, C.M., and Sumner, M.J.  (2005).  The fertilized embryo sac and formation of the caecum in the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum Canadian Journal of Botany.  83(5): 459-466.

1.  Ross, C.M., and Sumner, M.J.  (2004).  Development of the unfertilized embryo sac and pollen tubes in the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanumCanadian Journal of Botany.  82(11): 1566-1575.



I really, really like teaching.  What else can I say?  The students here at Thompson Rivers University are great!
A selection of courses!
BIOL 4990: "Microscopy"
BIOL 3230: "Biochemistry"
BIOL 2130: "Cell Biology"
BIOL 1110 "Principles of Biology 1"


I've joined the "electron transport chain gang" -->

I was formerly an instructor at the University of Manitoba, where I taught various Biology courses.


Electron Transport Chain

I am playing in a Latin trio with Physical Sciences' (Chemistry) Nelaine Mora-Diez.  Please visit Caliente's Web Page


Cynthia Ross Friedman
Department of Biological Sciences
Thompson Rivers University (TRU)
900 McGill Road
Kamloops, BC
V2C 0C8

phone: (250) 828-5424
fax: (250) 828-5450 (attn. C. Ross)

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