Cynthia Ross Friedman, Ph.D.
Department of Biological Sciences
Thompson Rivers University (TRU)
900 McGill Road
Office: S348 (Science)
phone: (250) 828-5424
My research is in the area of plant anatomy,
particularly seed development, although I also have
expertise and have published in the fields of forest and
urban ecology, microscopy, mathematical biology, and physics
(kinematics and electromagnetism). I primarily study
the reproductive development of the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium
americanum, a parasitic flowering plant
belonging to the Santalaceae, the same family as the
Christmas Mistletoe. All mistletoes are parasites, and
in the interior of B.C., A. americanum
parasitizes lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia).
Mistletoes derive all of their water and mineral
nutrients from their host. Dwarf mistletoes, however,
also obtain some sugars from their host. Being a pathogen, A.
americanum inflicts disease on the host pines,
stunting the trees and increasing mortality. Using the
techniques of light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy,
I have elucidated stages of female development in A.
Presently, I am investigating the mechanism of
explosive seed discharge at the microscopic level, and as a
result have cultivated a great interest in physics and
kinematics. I heartily enjoy collaboration with my
colleagues here at TRU, and most recently have been working
alongside Dr. Mark Paetkau (Physics). I also have
wonderful collaborations with Hua-Feng Wang (China), Maria
Vanessa Lencinas (Argentina), Prof. Dr. Ralf Kaldenhoff
(Germany), and Alessio Papini (Italy). Hua-Feng,
Vanessa, and I have shared interests in forest ecology and
conservation, while Ralf and I are working with Joanna Urban
(TRU) with respect to the role of aquaporins in explosive
discharge. Alessio and I have examined
reproductive developmental anatomy in some Brassicaceae.
PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL and
35. deBruyn RAJ, Paetkau M, Ross KA,
Godfrey DV, and Ross Friedman, C (2015).
Thermogenesis-triggered seed dispersal in dwarf
mistletoe, Arceuthobium americanum. Nature
Communications 6, 6262
34. Wang, H-F, Ren, M-X, López-Pujol, J., Ross Friedman, C. Fraser, L.H., and Huang, G-X. (2015). Plant species and communities in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China. Collectanea Botanica. 34(1): e003
I, Cinel B, Donkor K, Paetkau M, Ross Friedman C, and Church
J. (2014). Tenderness effects of suckler beef production
in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Animal
Science 94(2): 295-298 DOI 10.4141/cjas2013-126
32. Munro, K., Jackson JRM, Hartling I, Sumner, MJ, and Ross Friedman, C (2014). Anther and pollen development in the lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) staminate flower. Botany 92: 203–214. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2013-027631. Wang H-F, Qiu J-X, Breuste J, Ross Friedman, C, Zhou, WQ, Wang XK (2013). Variations of urban greenness across urban structural units in Beijing, China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 12: 554-561. DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2013.05.004
30. Mosti S, Ross Friedman C, Pacini E, Brighigna L., and Papini A. (2013). Comparing nectary ultrastructure and secretory modes in three species of Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae) that have different pollinators. Botany 91(11): 786-798, 10.1139/cjb-2013-0126
Friedman, B.M.C., Abraham, M.G., Paetkau, M., Taylor, S.R.,
and Ross Friedman, C. (2013). Use of a varying
turn-density coil (VTDC) to generate a constant gradient
magnetic field and to demonstrate the magnetic force on a
permanent magnet. The Canadian Journal of Physics.
91(3): 226-230. 10.1139/cjp-2012-0405
Friedman, C.M., Ross, B. N., and Martens, G.D. (2013). An antibody
against a conserved C-terminal consensus motif from plant
alternative oxidase (AOX) isoforms 1 and 2 labels plastids in
the explosive dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum,
Santalaceae) fruit exocarp. Protoplasma. 250(1): 317-323.
27. Wang, H-F., Lencinas M.V., Ross Friedman, C.M., Zhu, Z.-X., and Qiu, J.-X. (2012). Understory plant diversity assessment of Szemao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations in Yunnan, China. Collectanea Botanica. 31: 51-65.
26. Martin, L.L.,
Ross Friedman, C.M., and Phillips, L.A. (2012). Fungal endophytes of the
obligate parasitic dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium
americanum (Santalaceae) act antagonistically in vitro
against the native fungal pathogen Cladosporium (Davidiellaceae)
of their host. American Journal
of Botany. 99(12): 2027-34. doi:
S., Ross Friedman C., Piccolina F, Di Falcoa P. and Papinia,
A. (2012). The unusual tegumental tissues of the Lunaria
annua (Brassicaceae) seed: a developmental study using light
and electron microscopy. Flora. 207: 828– 837.
24. Wang, H-F., Wang, Z-S., Ross Friedman, C and Lopez-Pujol, J. (2012). Conservation of the Cathay silver fir, Cathaya argyrophylla: a Chinese evergreen "living fossil". Invited book chapter (review). In: Evergreens: Types, Ecology and Conservation. Eds. Adriano D. Bezerra and Tadeu S. Ferreira. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-1-61942-177-6.
Friedman, C.M. and Wang, H.F. (2012). Quantifying
Meiosis: Use of the Fractal dimension, Df, to Describe and
Predict Prophase I Substages and Metaphase I. Invited
book chapter (original research). In: Meiosis.
Ed. Andrew Swan. In Tech Publishers. ISBN 979-953-307-212-7
Friedman, B.M.C., and Ross Friedman, C.M. (2011). Terminal
velocity of canola oil, hexane and gasoline drops rising in
water due to buoyancy. International Journal of
Scientific and Engineering Research. 2(12): http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Terminal-Velocity-of-Canola-Oil-Hexane-and-Gasoline-Drops-Rising-in-Water-due-to-Buoyancy.pdf
L.L., Ross Friedman, C.M., and Smith, R.G.
(2011). Callus culture of Arceuthobium americanum
Nutt. ex Englem. and explant response to varying auxin and
cytokinin concentrations. Plant Tissue Culture
and Biotechnology. 21(1): 1-10.
Dwarka, A., Ross Friedman, C.M., MacKay, M.E., and Nelson,
D. (2011). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
identification of a female-specific genetic marker in Arceuthobium
americanum (lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe) using random
amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Botany. 89: 369–377.
H-F., Lencinas M.V., Ross Friedman, C.M., Wang,
X.-K., and Qiu, J.-X. (2011). The impact of Eucalyptus
plantation on plant diversity following clearing of secondary
evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan, China. New
Forests. 42(1): 101-116, DOI
Pernitsky, K.Y., Mason, Q.D., Cinel, B., and Ross
Friedman, C.M. (2011). Discovery and partial purification
of an antibiotic from lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium
americanum) active against Gram-positive organisms
including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 5(9): 1722-1727.
M.A., Huttunen-Hennelly, H.E.K., Ross Friedman, C.M. (2011) Bioactivity and the first TEM
immunogold studies of short de novo designed
antimicrobial peptides Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 55(5): 2137-2145,
Koziura, K.J., Ross Friedman, C.M., and Smith, R.G.
(2010). Effects of methanolic and
hexanes-derived dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium) extracts
on the viability of salmon cells in culture: do these extracts
induce necrosis and/or apoptosis? Plant
Products Research. 14: 1-5.
15. Vaudry, C.J., Ross Friedman, C.M., and Cinel, B. (2010). Biosurfactants in dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium). Plant Products Research. 14: 6–13.
H-F., Ross Friedman, C.M., Shi, J-C., and Zheng, Z-Y.
(2010). Anatomy of leaf abscission in the Amur honeysuckle
maackii, Caprifoliaceae): a scanning electron microscopy
study. Protoplasma 247(1-2): 111-116,
13. Kelly, S.K., Ross Friedman, C.M., and Smith, R.G. (2009). Vesicular cells of the lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) fruit: development, cytochemistry, and lipid analysis. Botany 87: 1177-1185.
Friedman, C.M., Ross, Bradford N., and Martens, Garnet
Antibodies raised against tobacco aquaporins of the PIP2 class
label the viscin tissue of the explosive dwarf mistletoe
fruit. Plant Biology
H-F., Ross Friedman, C.M., Zhang, Z-X., and Qin, H-N. (2009). Early reproductive
developmental anatomy in Decaisnea
(Lardizabalaceae) and its systematic implications. Annals of Botany. 104(6):1243-1253;
10. Fraser, L.H.,
Greenall, A., Carlyle, C., Turkington, R., and Ross Friedman,
C.M. (2009). Adaptive phenotypic plasticity of Pseudoroegneria spicata:
response of stomatal density, leaf area and biomass to changes
in water supply and increased temperature. Annals of Botany. 103:
9. Ross Friedman,
C.M. and Sumner, M.J. (2009). Maturation of
the embryo, endosperm, and fruit of the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum
Journal of Plant Sciences. 170(3): 290-300.
E., Ross Friedman, C.M. and Flood, N. (2008).
Effect of Arceuthobium
americanum (dwarf mistletoe) infection on lodgepole
pine needles. Northwest
Science 82(3): 237-240.
A. and Ross Friedman, C.M. (2008). The effects of male
and female Arceuthobium
americanum (lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe) infection
on the relative positioning of vascular bundles, starch
distribution, and starch content in Pinus contorta
(lodgepole pine) needles. Botany. 86(5): 339-543.
5. Ross, C.M. (2006). Viscin cells in the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum – “green springs” with potential roles in explosive seed discharge and seed adhesion. Davidsonia 17(3): 75-86.
4. Ross, C.M., and Sumner, M.J.
(2005). Early embryo and endosperm development in the
dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum. International Journal of Plant
Sciences. 166(6): 901-907.
3. Ross, C.M. (2005). A new way of thinking about meiosis: using the fractal dimension to predict the onset of metaphase I. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 1:123-125. http://www.biolsci.org/v01p0123.htm
2. Ross, C.M., and Sumner, M.J. (2005). The fertilized embryo sac and formation of the caecum in the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum. Canadian Journal of Botany. 83(5): 459-466.
1. Ross, C.M., and Sumner, M.J. (2004). Development of the unfertilized embryo sac and pollen tubes in the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum. Canadian Journal of Botany. 82(11): 1566-1575.
I really, really like teaching. What else
can I say? The students here at Thompson Rivers
University are great!
|A selection of courses!
BIOL 3230: "Biochemistry"
BIOL 1110 "Principles of Biology 1"
joined the "electron transport chain gang" -->
formerly an instructor at the University of
Manitoba, where I taught various Biology courses.
I am playing in a Latin trio with Physical Sciences' (Chemistry) Nelaine Mora-Diez. Please visit Caliente's Web Page
Cynthia Ross Friedman
Department of Biological Sciences
Thompson Rivers University (TRU)
900 McGill Road
phone: (250) 828-5424
fax: (250) 828-5450 (attn. C. Ross)